The oil used in our machines, automobiles, and industries is typically located far beneath the surface of the Earth, in the middle of the ocean. Thousands of tons of oil can leak into the environment if oil rigs or apparatus break down. The effects of an oil spill on ecosystems and habitats can be devastating, resulting in the loss of countless species of flora and fauna, as well as the contamination of air and water.
Bobby Lee Koricanek believes an oil spill could compromise numerous environmental components. The extent of the spill and its placement determine the severity of the consequences. Oil spills, for example, can significantly impact the temporary loss of habitat for animals and fish. Many biological processes, including respiration, nutrition, and thermoregulation, could be disrupted by exposure to heavy oils. Additionally, the spilled oil’s hazardous chemical components and constituents might temporarily alter the ecology.
Oil spills in water environments (such as the ocean or seas or leaks from rigs that make their way into water) are often degraded quickly, in contrast to those on land or in the subsurface. Suppose an aquatic oil spill is significant enough. In that case, it can have devastating impacts on marine life, birds, humans, and ecosystems (such as marshes, wetlands, shorelines, and gulf coasts) (as in the case of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill or the 2010 BP oil spill caused by offshore drilling). If we know how they will carry the oil and where it will end up, Bobby Lee Koricanek ascertains that we can estimate the full scope and severity of the effects of an oil spill.
Effects of an Oil Spill on Water Environments
The environmental effects of oil on the water are harmful in many ways. Oil does not mix with the water when it pours into the sea or freshwater. Both fresh and saltwater have oil on the surface. The oil covers the water’s surface in a very thin layer for a brief period. This may prevent sunlight from penetrating oceanic habitats, harming producers and, as a result, the entire food chain of an ecosystem.
The oil layer, often known as a slick, thins out and can stretch hundreds of miles in width. Sheens are thin layers that are typically less than 0.01 mm thick. The whims of the weather, waves, and currents can affect oil spills on the water’s surface. So, waves and current activity can bring an oil spill far out at sea to shore.
An oil slick can be broken apart by rough seas, sending more oil in one direction and less in the other. In contrast, currents and wave movement that cause the oil to reach onshore and harm marine shoreline ecology can completely manage a near-shore oil spill.
When oil is spilled, different types respond in different ways. Some dissipate slowly, while others degrade more quickly. A moderate amount of oil will degrade after the sheen does, and it will be left behind on the ocean floor.
Although some kinds of bacteria will disintegrate and devour the oil, this will not undo the harm caused by the spill. Oil spills in the ocean also damage the underwater environment when they break apart and settle on the ocean floor.
Environmental Effects of Oil on the Coastline
The damaging effects oil has on the coastline may be the aspect of an oil spill that is most noticeable. Images of sea creatures and birds covered in oil are quite common. Oil adheres to everything it touches because it is thick. Even though the birds and other species you see on television may be the most obvious signs of devastation, Bobby Lee Koricanek recommends that you keep in mind that the oil covers everything, even sand grains. After a spill, thick oil devastates or affects every rock, piece of driftwood, sawgrass, sand, soil, and microscopic habitat.
Oil will remain on the shore until the weather and passing the time break the oil down unless a concerted effort is made to clean the shoreline. The process is quite slow, which is why so many environmentalists tirelessly clean polluted shorelines, rocks, and beach areas. The nasty black tar that makes up an oil slick covers the shoreline in a mushy mass.
Because so much aquatic life is concentrated along the coastline, it is dangerous. In addition to housing many juvenile marine animals, beach regions are typically the nurseries for fish and marine life.
Impacts on Wildlife and Marine Life
Oil spills in the ocean have a wide range of repercussions.
Direct Impact on Marine Life
There are many ways that marine and coastal species can get contaminated, including by direct contact with oil, habitat degradation, and ingesting poison. As an illustration, a marine mammal that surfaces in the middle of an oil slick will consume the oil. The gills of marine invertebrates and animals that swim through the oily area can also absorb oil.
Even if a marine species is kilometers away from the oil leak, it will consume the lethal oil if it eats a nearby creature. Other than death and illness, consuming oil can result in a variety of issues. Oil can interfere with an animal’s or other marine organisms’ capacity to reproduce and give birth to healthy children.
Environmental Effects of Oil on Wildlife and Habitat
With an oil disaster, habitat devastation is all too visible. On land, you would find the most noticeable creatures, but underwater, shallow-water ecosystems like reefs have a highly delicate equilibrium. Oil spills frequently result in the death of plankton, the producers at the base of the food chain, due to changes to the water and a lack of sunlight beneath the oil slick.
The impact continues to spread up the food chain. The extremely delicate marine life that consumes plankton, such as clams and mussels, is of particular concern.
Any organism that comes into direct touch with oil is harmed. For instance, oil prevents a bird’s feathers from rejecting water when it coats them. The oil also makes the bird heavier and prevents it from flying. A bird is guaranteed to die if the oil isn’t removed. Additionally, many birds consume lethal amounts of oil while brushing their feathers.
Marine mammals share the same characteristics. Marine mammals’ fur is an insulator to keep the animal warm in the coldest seas. Fur loses its capacity to absorb heat when it is saturated with oil. Again, when cleaning their fur, marine creatures may consume the oil.
Oil spills have a variety of negative repercussions on the economy and environment. Oil spill consequences will fundamentally harm streams, marine life, vegetation, and animals on land. Oil spills can devastate a region’s economy and infrastructure, with long-term consequences that can last for decades. An oil spill cleanup is exceedingly expensive, and the costs are shared between government organizations, nonprofit organizations, and the oil transport business. Every time there is an oil spill, the public loses faith in the ability of the oil industry to handle this hazardous yet necessary product.
Damage to an animal’s fur or feathers can occur during and after an oil spill. For instance, if a seal pup’s fur breaks down, it will become hypothermic. According to Bobby Lee Koricanek, this phenomenon causes the bulk of bird deaths in oil slicks. Toxins are produced when oil is consumed directly. This is true for creatures living close to the oil spill and those higher up the food chain. Fish may tolerate little oil and live, but they may transmit it to another species far away from the spot, killing it. A long-term effect on animals is that their eggshells get thinner if they are exposed to oil. Algae and seagrass are also contaminated. Bobby Lee Koricanek also ascertains that it can take years for the ecology to recover from this.